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Published by

iambr.info/AMBR



Open Access

 

Original Work



Tchuenguem et al. Arch Med Biomed Res. 2017;3:91-103. doi:

10.4314/ambr.v3i2.5

91


Ethnopharmacological



survey,



antioxidant  and  antifungal  activity  of



medicinal  plants  traditionally  used  in



Baham  locality  (Cameroon)  to  treat



fungal infections

Roland  T  Tchuenguem

1

,  Frederick  A  Kechia



2,3

,  Jules  R

Kuiate

1

, Jean P Dzoyem



1

ABSTRACT

Invasive  fungal  infections  are  important  causes  of  mortality  despite

advances  in  antifungal  therapy.  The  aim  of  this  study  was  collect

information on plants used by traditional healers for the treatment of

fungal  infections  in  the  Baham  subdivision  (Western  region  of

Cameroon)  and  to  assess  the  in  vitro  antifungal  and  antioxidant

potentials  of  the  extracts  from  the  medicinal  plants  surveyed.  The

antifungal  activity  was  assessed  by  the  broth  micro-dilution  method

and  the  antioxidant  activity  was  determined  using  the  free-radical

scavenging  assays.  The  extracts  for  the  plants  Kotschya  strigosa  and



Eryngium  foetidum  had  potent  antifungal  activity  with  minimum

inhibitory  concentration  value  of  32  µg/mL  against  Cryptococcus



neoformans.  Eugenia  gilgii  extract  had  the  highest  free  radical

scavenging  capacity  in  2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl  assay  (IC

50

 of


4.54μg/mL). There is a rich wealth of knowledge and usage of plants by

traditional  healers  for  the  treatment  of  fungal  infections  and  further

studies  should  consider  isolation  of  active  compounds  from  the

extracts in order to assess the potential for developing new, effective,

safe  and  affordable  phytomedicine  for  the  treatment  of  fungal

infections and other pharmacological applications.



KEY  WORDS:  Ethnomedicine;  Fungal  infections;  Antifungal;



Antioxidant; Extract



INTRODUCTION

Invasive fungal diseases are important causes of morbidity and

mortality.  Nowadays,  the  incidence  of  invasive  fungal  infection

has  been  increasing,  mostly  due  to  advances  in  medicine  that

may  produce  immunocompromised  individuals

1

.  It  has  been

shown  that  10–20%  of  HIV/AIDS  patients  die  as  a  direct

consequence  of  fungal  infection



2

.  At  the  same  time,  additional

antifungal  agents  have  become  available,  but  despite  these

advances,  mortality  rates  of  IFIs  remain  unacceptably  high,

especially among immunocompromised patients

3

. In this regard,

development of new bioactive compounds or new formulations

of antifungals might be useful for a better therapeutic outcome.



To  cite:  

Tchuenguem  RT,

Kechia  FA,  Kuiate  JR,  Dzoyem

JP.

Ethnopharmacological



survey,

antioxidant

and

antifungal activity of medicinal



plants  traditionally  used  in

Baham  locality  (Cameroon)  to

treat  fungal  infections.  Arch

Med

Biomed

Res.

2017;3(2):91-103.

doi:

10.4314/ambr.v3i2.5



Publication history

Received: May 30, 2016

Revised: September 26, 2016

Accepted: October 02, 2016



Open Access

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commercial.



CrossRef Link

http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/am

br.v3i2.5

Correspondence to

Jean P Dzoyem;

jpdzoyem@yahoo.fr

Published by

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Original Work



Tchuenguem et al. Arch Med Biomed Res. 2017;3:91-103. doi:

10.4314/ambr.v3i2.5

92


Ethnopharmacological

surveys


are

recognised  as  the  most  viable  methods  of

identifying  new  medicinal  plants  and  to

discover  and  produce  natural  or  synthetic

drug

4

.

Fabricant



and

Farnsworth



5

highlighted

the

potential



of

ethnopharmacological  approaches  in  the

discovery  of  new  therapeutic  agents  and

the  importance  to  confirm  the  traditional

use  of  herbal  remedies  by  in  vitro

investigations.  Scientific  investigations  of

medicinal  plants  have  been  initiated  in

many


countries

because


of

their


contributions  for  the  fight  against  various

diseases  including  fungal  infections



6

.

Several ethnopharmacological surveys have



been  published  during  last  years  on

traditional  medicine  in  several  cultures

Africa  with  the  aim  of  preserving  their

herbal remedies usage as well as finding an

evidence-based

approach

to

their


corresponding use

7

. In order to provide data

useful for conservation of cultural traditions

and  biodiversity,  but  also  useful  for

community  healthcare  as  well  as  drug

discovery  in  the  present  and  in  the  future,

the  present  study  was  undertaken  to

identify  the  medicinal  plants  traditionally

used  for  fungal  infections  in  the  Baham

subdivision,  Western  region  of  Cameroon.

In  addition,  in  vitro  screening  of  selected

extracts  from  plants  on  which  scientific

knowledge is limited was also performed to

provide the scientific evidence of their use.



METHODOLOGY



Study Area

Baham  is  the  Central  sub-division  of  the

upper  plateau  division  of  the  western

region  of  the  Republic  of  Cameroon.  The

geographical located has been described in

previous studies



8,9

.

Ethnobotanical Survey

An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in

Baham Subdivision from December 2013 to

February  2014.  The  objectives  of  the  study

were  clearly  explained  and  verbal  consent

was  obtained  from  each  study  participant.

Interviews  were  conducted  in  the  field

during  collection  trips  and  by  examination

of  freshly  collected  specimens  with

informants, after seeking oral consent. Local

traditional  healers,  herbalists  and  aged

persons  having  practical  knowledge  of  the

use  of  plants  for  health  care  were

interviewed.  Data  on  plant  species,  local

name, part used, diseases treated, mode of

preparation and administration of herbal

medicine    were  recorded    following    the

standard    questionnaire    of    the    Scientific

Technical  and  Research  Commission  (STRC)

of the Organisation of African Unity-OAU

10

.

Plant Material





Collection and identification of plants

The informants guided us to the field where

we  could  see  and  collect  specimens  of  the

plant in question, in cases where they were

not  found  around  their  homes.  Standard

methods  were  used  in  plant  material

collection,  drying,  mounting,  preparation

and  preservation

11

.  Plants  were  identified



first by their vernacular names and later

validated  by  Dr.  Tchiengue  Barthelemy  a

botanist  from    the    Cameroon    National

Herbarium Yaoundé.



Extraction

Dried,  ground  plant  materials  (50g)  were

soaked in 300 mL of methanol for 48h with

intermittent  shaking.  The  methanol  soaked

plant extracts obtained were filtered using a

Whatman No. 1 filter paper and the filtrate

and evaporated using the rotary evaporator

to  give  the  crude  extract.  They  were  then

kept under 4°C until further use.

Preliminary phytochemical investigations

The  major  secondary  metabolites  classes

were  screened  according  to  the  common

phytochemical  methods  described  by

Harborne

12

.


Published by

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Tchuenguem et al. Arch Med Biomed Res. 2017;3:91-103. doi:

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93


Antifungal assay

Antifungal  activity  was  performed  against

five  strains  of  fungi  including  Candida

albicans  ATCC9002,  Candida  parapsilosis

ATCC22019,  Candida  tropicalis  ATCC750,



Cryptocuccus  neoformans  IP95026  and  one

isolate  of  Candida  guilliermondi.  Minimum

inhibitory  concentrations  (MICs)  and

Minimum  fungicidal  concentrations  (MFCs)

were determined by the broth microdilution

method  as  previously  described



13

.  All  the

experiments  were  carried  out  in  triplicate

and  Ketoconazole  served  as  reference

antifungal.

Antioxidant activity

Antioxidant  activity  of  extracts  by  2,2’-

Azino-bis

(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-

sulphonic  acid)  diammonium  salt  (ABTS),

2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl  (DPPH)  and

ferric  reducing  antioxidant  power  (FRAP)

assays as well as the total phenolic content

(TPC)  and  total  flavonoid  content  (TFC)

were determined as previously described



14

.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION



Ethnobotanical Survey

Among  the  twenty-nine  respondent

interviewees,  the  most  important  group

was  traditional  medicinal  healers  (51.7%),

followed  by  villagers  with  empirical)

knowledge  on  medicinal  plants  used  as

herbal  remedies  (31%)  and  herbalists

(17.2%). Women and men were interviewed

equally  and  the  majority  of  interviewees

encountered  were  at  least  50  years  old.  A

total  of  47  plant  species  belonging  to  43

genera  and  28  families,  used  in  the

treatment of fungal infections was recorded

(

Table  1

).  In  this  study,  the  most

represented  family  of  plant  is  Asteraceae

with 10 species belonging to 10 genera. The

leaves  were  the  mostly  used  parts  of  the

plants  (66%  of  the  plants  recorded).

Nevertheless,  Stem  bark  for  trees,  seeds,

fruits and roots were also used. Because of

the diversity of their chemical constituents,

plant  extracts  exhibit  a  variety  of

pharmacological  activities  and  for  this

reason  many  biological  activities  might  be

observed  in  the  same  extract.  

Table  1

 also

indicates the use of the recorded medicinal

plants  for  the  treatment  of  other  illnesses.

Most  of  the  plant  preparations  were  taken

orally

(80%),


usually

prepared

as

maceration  (50%),  decoctions  (13%)  or



concoction  (5%).  In  addition,  preparations

for  topical  use  as  pomade  were  also  used

(36%).  Topical  applications  were  used  to

treat superficial mycosis such as cutaneous

candidiasis  ringworm,  tinea  capitis,  tinea

pedis  and  other  dermatophytosis.  Orally

taken  preparations  were  used  as  a

treatment  for  intestinal  candidiasis.

Literature  review  of  our  studied  medicinal

plants  shows  that  they  are  used  in  many

countries  of  sub-Saharan  Africa  for  the

treatment  of  other  various  disorders



15

.

Some  of  the  plants  recorded  during  our



survey, were previously reported in a study

carried  out  in  Ndop  (Central  Sub-division,

Cameroon)  on  the  plants  used  in  the

treatment  of  the  reproductive  system

diseases

15

.  These  observations  prove  the

reliability  of  information  gathered  during

this  survey.  This  is  also  consistent  with

other previous studies

9

.

Preliminary phytochemical investigations

Flavonoids,  phenols,  saponins,  tannins,

anthocyanins,  sterols,  triterpenoids  and

anthraquinones were found to be the most

common phytochemical in the tested plant

extracts (

Table 2

). Several compounds from

these  classes  of  secondary  metabolites

were  found  active  on  pathogenic

microorganisms



16

. This finding suggests that

these plants could be a promising source of

bioactive  principles  with  antimicrobial

potency.  Phenolic  compounds  were  found

to be present in 71% of the extract tested.

This  finding  suggests  that  these  groups  of

compounds  might  the  main  antimicrobial



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Tchuenguem et al. Arch Med Biomed Res. 2017;3:91-103. doi:

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94


bioactive  principle  in  these  plants.  The

antimicrobial

activity

of


phenolic

compounds

has

been


extensively

demonstrated



16

.

Antifungal activity

Plants  with  limited  previously  reported

activity  were  selected  for  in  vitro

confirmation of their traditional use against

fungal  infections.  Therefore,  they  were

screened  for  antifungal  and  antioxidant

activity  tests.  Some  of  the  extracts  tested

had no activity at the highest concentration

tested  (1024  µg/mL)  against  various



Candida species. Active extracts presented

variable  antifungal  properties  with  MIC

values  ranging  from  32  to  1024  µg/mL

(

Table  3

).  The  extract  of  Kotschya  strigosa

had  significant  antifungal  activity  against

the  tested  fungi  (MIC:  32-64  µg/mL).  The

significant  activity  obtained  with  Kotschya

strigosa  extract  might  be  due  to  his  high

content  in  phenolic  and  flavonoids

compounds,  which  are  known  to  possess

antimicrobial activity



17

. This result confirms

the  antifungal  potential  of  the  plants

investigated  and  their  usefulness  in

treatment of fungal infections.

Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and



total flavonoid content

The  antioxidant  capacity  expressed  as  IC

50

value  and  the  total  phenolic  and  the  total



flavonoid  content  of  all  extracts  are  shown

in

Table 4

. The use of at least two different

assays  in  evaluating  antioxidant  activity  of

plant  extracts  has  been  recommended  by

Moon  and  Shibamoto

18

.

 Consequently,



extracts  were  tested  for  their  antioxidant

potential using the DPPH, the ABTS and the

FRAP  methods.  The  IC

50

 values  occurred  in



the range of 4.54 μg/mL to 719.44 μg/mL in

the DPPH assay. Ten extracts out of twenty-

four showed marked free radical scavenging

capacity  in  DPPH  assay  with  IC

50

 values


lower than 10 μg/mL, which is close to that

of  the  positive  control  trolox  and  ascorbic

acid.  These  results  indicate  that  these

extracts  could  be  a  potential  source  of

natural  antioxidants.  The  total  phenolic

contents and the total flavonoid contents of

the  extracts  were  respectively  in  the  range

of  7.45  to  332.62  mg  GAE/g  and  5.02  to

52.05  mg  QE/g.  According  to  Makkar

19

 the



TPC of an extract amounting to 5 mg GAE/g

is  considered  to  be  significant  and  could

have a beneficial antioxidant efficacy. It has

been  reported  that  the  antioxidant  activity

of plant materials is well correlated with the

content  of  their  phenolic  compounds;

moreover, polyphenols have been reported

to be responsible for the antioxidant activity

in plant extracts

20

. Antioxidants fight against

free  radicals  and  protect  against  various

diseases.

Our  overall  results  provided  insight  in  the

pharmacological

activity

of


the

underinvestigated Kotschya strigosa specie.

In  addition  of  presenting  the  best

antimicrobial activity, Kotschya strigosa also

revealed  the  presence  of  flavonoids  and

phenols in the phytochemical analysis. This

observation was consistent with antioxidant

activity with IC

50

value similar to that of the



standard antioxidant ascorbic acid, in DPPH

assay. This finding highlights the correlation

between  the  phenolic  compounds,  the

antioxidant and the antimicrobial activity.

In the

Table  5

are presented the Pearson’s

correlation  coefficients  (r)  between  total

flavonoid  and  total  phenolic  contents  the

antioxidant  activity,  then  between  total

flavonoid  and  total  phenolic  contents  and

the  antifungal  activity.  A  negative  linear

correlation  was  observed  between  total

flavonoid  and  total  phenolic  contents  and

the  antioxidant  activity  determined  by

DPPH  and  ABTS  while  a  positive  linear

correlation  was  obtained  with  FRAP  assay

(r=0.728  and  r=0.257  respectively).  It  is

worth  noting  that,  for  the  antioxidant

activity,  the  smaller  the  IC

50

values,  the



better  the  antioxidant  activity.  For  FRAP,

TPC  and  TFC  assay,  the  higher  the  values



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Tchuenguem et al. Arch Med Biomed Res. 2017;3:91-103. doi:

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95


presented in

Table 5

, the better the activity

or  the  content  evaluated.  Therefore,

correlations  obtained  satisfactory  and

corroborated  with  the  literature  reporting

the  relation  between  the  antioxidant

activity  and  TPC.  Similar  finding  was  found

between  total  flavonoid  content  and  the

antifungal  activity(r=0.129.  It  has  been

reported  that  many  phenolic  compounds

have  antimicrobial  activity  and  antioxidant

activity

21,22

. However, a very weak negative

linear  correlation  was  found  between  total

phenolic  content  and  the  antifungal

activity(r=  -0.019).  In  fact,  several  recent

works  highlighted  the  potential  role  of

phytochemical  components,  including  the

flavonoids  and  phenolic  compounds,  as

important  contributing  factors  to  their

antioxidant  activity



23

.  The  antioxidant

activity  of  phenolic  compounds  is  mainly

due  to  their  redox  properties,  which  can

play  an  important  role  in  adsorbing  and

neutralizing free radicals, quenching singlet

and  triplet  oxygen,  or  decomposing

peroxides



24

. Other studies have shown that

many  dietary  polyphenolic  constituents

derived  from  plants  are  more  effective

antioxidants  in  vitro  than  vitamins  C

(ascorbic  acid)  and  thus  might  contribute

significantly  to  the  protective  effects  in

vivo


24

.

Table 1: Ethnobotanical characteristics of the medicinal plants recorded



Scientific name



(Family)



Voucher



number



Vernacular /



Common name



Part



used



Mode of



preparation/



administration



Other traditional uses



Senna alata Mill

(Leguminosea/Caesalpiniadeae)

11002SRF /

Cam


quinqueliba

Lv


Crushed/P

Treatment of dermatosis, mycoses



28

, malaria, ascariasis,

laxative, hemorrhoid

4

.

Acanthus montanus (Nees) T.

Anders. (Acanthaceae)

2127SRFK/

Cam

Megnebili male



Lv

M/O/P


Treatment of cough, stomachache, anomaly of the

urinary tract, chest paint



58

.

Aframomum pruinosum

(Zingiberaceae)

10880SRF/

Cam

Jujube


Fr

M/O


Treatment hemorrhoid

47

.

Ageratum conyzoides L.

(Asteraceae)

6575/SRFK

Mré guefah

Wp, Lv,


M/P

Treatment of eyes paint, the gastro-intestinal pains



34

,

antiparasitaire, treatment of injury



35

, antidiarrheal,

conjunctivitis, snake bite, fight against tapeworm

34

.

Ananas comonis

(Anonaceae)

Ananas


Fr

C/O


Antiparasitic

28

.

Anchomanes difformis (Blume)

Engl. (Asteraceae)

9277SRF/C

am

Macabo de



brousse

Rt


M/O

Trigger an excessive purge



51

, wound, hemorrhoid



52

.

Bidens pilosa L.

(Asteraceae)

9507/SRF/

Cam

Kin gne


Ap

D/O


Treatment of injury, malaria

35

, antidiarrheal.



Biophyton petersianum

(Oxalidaceae)

7057SRF/C

am


Komtsepo

Wp


M/P

Treatment of Hemorrhoid



4

.

Carica papaya Linn.

(Caricaceae)

15553HNC

Papaye

Fr


C/O

Treatment of toothache



26

, antiparasitic



28

, cough


30

.

Cissus aralioides

(Vitaceae)

9155SRF/C

am

Djeposse



St

M/O


Treatment of hemorrhoid, anticancer

53



Cissus quadrangularis L.

(Vitaceae/Ampelidaceae)

7739HNC

Potse


Rt, Lv

M/O


Treatment of hemorrhoid

49

.

Cola acuminata Schott et Endl.

(Sterculiaceae)

1729SRFK

Cola

Clove


M/O/P

Stimulant, enhance alertness, physical energy, elevate

mood, suppress appetite and hunger, Increases tactile

sensitivity, use for whooping cough, treatment of

asthma, clean digestive system, Remedy against poison,

treatment of fresh wound/circumcision, aphodisiac,

bronchodilator, jaundice(fruit pulp), bronchitis and

throat infection, Catarrh, abdominal colicky pain, anti-

diabetic and antihepatotoxic, anti-inflammatory,

antimicrobial, antiviral properties, adaptogenic

property antioxidants in red cell survival and viability,

antitrichomonal activity



40

.

Combretum collinum

(Combretaceae)

3054SRFK

Romee

Fr


D/O

Treatment of hemorrhoid



49

.



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96


Commelina benghalensis L.

(Commelinaceae)

33333/HN

C

Wou wou



Ap

Exudate/ P

Food (vegetable), use to fight against sterility among

women, ophthalmia, the pain of throat and the burns,

to relieve the disorders of the stomach

31

.

Costus afer Ker-Gawl

(Costaceae)

17762HNC

Canne des

jumeaux


Lv

M/O


Anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-anthritic

55



Crassocephalium sp

(Asteraceae/Compositae)

7954HNC

Makoh


Lv

M/O


The leaf extract is used to treat epilepsy, pain, arthritis,

intestinal pain and colics



38

.

Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd

(Caryophylaceae)

20550/SRF

/Cam

Mto kia


Lv

M/O/P


Anti-leper

28

, fight against pains



35

, antifungal.



Elephantopus mollis H.B & K

(Compositae/Asteraceae)

6571SRF/C

am


Limlim

Lv


M/O

Treatment of respiratory disease, stomachic disease



44



Emilia coccinea (Sims) G. Don

(Asteraceae)

20079/HN

C

Mré lapin



Lv, Ap

D/O


Treatment of Antidiarrheal, jaundice

26

.

Emilia coccinea (Sims) G. Don

(Asteraceae)

20079/HN


C

Mré lapin

Lv, Ap

M/O


Antidiarrheal, treatment of jaundice

26

.

Eremomastax speciosa Hochst.

(Acanthaceae)

23604/SRF

/Cam

Pinkuidjum



Lv

M/O


Treatment of dysentery, anemia, irregular

menstruation, hemorrhoids, urinary tract infection



25

.



Erigeron floribunduus (Kunth)H.B.

(Asteraceae)

5619SRF/C

am


Mré gam

Lv


M/O/P

Treatment of skin disorders



36

.

Eryngium foetidum L.

(Apiaceae)

11741SRF/

Cam

Megnebili



femelle

Lv


M/O/P

Treatment of pneumonia, diabetes, constipation,

fevers, vomiting, diarrhea

61

.

Eugenia gilgii

(Myrtaceae)

63901HNC

Dartrier

Lv


M/P

Not reported



Euphorbia cf kamerunica

(Euphorbiaceae)

25721SRF /

Cam


Sah sakta

Lv


M/O/P

Treatment of mycoses



60

.

Euphorbia prostata Aiton

(Euphorbiaceae)

12931 HNC  Fekom

Wp

M/O


Treatment of Stomachache, hemorrhoid

27

.

Harungana madagascariensis

Lam

(Hyphericaceae)

43848HNC

Keto


St

M/O


Treatment of jaundice

26

, antiparasitic



35

, antidiarrheal,

traitment of dermatosis and mycosis

28



Ipomoea batatas Poir

(Convolvulaceae)

18597SRFK

Feuilles de

patate rouge

Lv


M/O

Treatment of wound healing and antiulcer



42

.

Ipomoea batatas Poir

(Convolvulaceae)

18597SRFK

Feuille de patate  Lv, St

D/O


Treatment of hemorrhoid

47

.

Kotschya strigosa (Benth.) Dewit

& Duvign

(Leguminosae/Mimosoideae)

22849SRF/

Cam


Tsoptsop

Fr


M/O/P

Not reported



Lactura capensis Trump

(Compositae/Asteraceae)

3101SRFK

Tietie


Lv

D/O


Treatment of HIV/AIDS and related opportunistic

infections



45

.

Musa acuminata hybrid

(Musaceae)

Feuilles et

racines de

bananier

Lv

M/O


Treatment of bronchitis, constipation, ulcers and good

for diabetics. It is also used as a lactating agent and

helps to relieve painful menstruation

43

.

Nicotiana tabacum L.

(Solanaceae)

18637/SRF

/Cam

Depah


Lv

M/P


The leaves (decoction) are as antispasmodics, diuretics,

emetics, expectorants, sedatives, and in rheumatic

swellings, anesthetics, antibacterial, Anticonvulsants

and for anti-fungal activities



35

.

Ocimum gratissimum Linn.

(Lamiaceae)

Macep


Lv

M/O/P


Treatment of dermatosis

4

, antidiarrheal



29

,

gingivitis



30

.

Persea Americana Miller

(Lauraceae)

18604SRF/

Cam

Noyau d’avocat



Se

Juice/O


Treatment and management of childhood convulsions

and epilepsy



50

.

Physalis peruviana

(Solanaceae)

15364SRF/

Cam

Ma pe pie



Lv St

M/O


The plant is used as tonic, diuretic, laxative, applied in

inflammations, enlargement of the spleen, ascites, and

as a helpful remedy in ulceration of the bladder

39



Plectranthus tetraderifolius A.J.

Paton


(Labiatae/Lamiaceae)

17293SRF/

Cam

Djor


Lv

M/O


Used to treat a range of ailments, particularly digestive,

skin, infective and respiratory problems



48

.

Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzelic

(Apocynaceae)

1698SRFK

Chwekom

Rt, Lv


D/O

Treatment of jaundice and gastro-intestinal

disturbance, leprosy, rheumatic pains

54



Ricinodendron heudolothï

(Euphorbiaceae)

19695SRF/

Cam


Djansan

Lv


M/O

Treatment of skin diseases, anaemia, malaria, stomach

pain, aphrodisiac

41



Sacharum officinarum

(Poaceae)

25820SRF/

Cam


Canne à sucre

St


M/O

Treatment of arthritis, bedsores, boils, cancer, colds,

cough, diarrhea, dysentery, eyes, fever, hiccups,

inflammation, laryngitis



58

.

Sanseveria senegambica Baker

(Avagaceae)

14801SRF/

Cam

Rhé gui


Lv

M/O/P


Treatment of bronchitis, inflammation, coughs, boils

and hypertension



59

.


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97


Solanum acuteastrum Dur.

(Solanaceae)

14611SRF/

Cam


Su su dem

(obergine

sauvage)

Fr


M/P

Treatment of human and livestock diseases, jigger

wounds, gonorrhea, breast cancer.

Solanum nigrum Linn.

(Solanaceae)

8985SRF /C

am


Feuille de

légume


Lv

M/P


Treatment of pain, inflammation, fever, enteric

diseases, microbial infection



57



Solanum torvum Swartz

(Solanaceae)

1651SRFK

Tetiena


Fr, Lv

M/P


Treatment of asthma, diabetes, hypertension,

tuberculosis



56



Spilanthes caulirhiza

(Asteraceae/Compositae)

33075HNC

Pin twe


Lv St

M/O


Treatment of hemorrhoid

32

,

analgesic



33

.

Stachytarpheta cayennensis (L.R.

Rich) Schau.

(Verbenaceae)

11726SRF/

Cam


Lv

M/O


Plant is used to treat specific symptoms or conditions

that often accompany malaria, such as weakness and

fever

46

.

Vernonia amygdalina Del.

(Compositae)

Ndolè


Lv

M/O


Fight against measles, antiparasitic, febrifuge

35

treatment of dermatosis and mycosis



62

, antidiarrheal



4



Lv: leaves; Wp: whole plant; Fr: fruit; Bk: bark; Roots: Rt; Aeral parts: Ap; Se: seed: St: stem; O: oral; P: Pomade; C:

Concoction; D: decoction; M: maceration

Table 2: Major phytochemical groups in the plant extract



Plants



Part used



At



Fl



St



Tr



Ta



Sa



An



Ph



Anchomanes difformis

Tuberose roots  +

-

-

+



+

-

+



+

Aframomum pruinosum

Fruits


+

-

-



-

+

-



-

+

Cola acuminata

Cola pods

+

-



-

-

+



-

+

+



Commelina benghalensis

Leaf stems

-

-

-



+

-

+



+

+

Combretum collinum

Fruits

+

-



-

-

+



+

+

+



Costus afer

Leaf stems

-

+

-



+

-

-



-

+

Drymaria cordata

Leaf stems

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



Eugenia gilgii

Leafs


+

-

-



-

+

-



-

+

Eryngium foetidum

Leaf stems

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

+



Erigeron floribunduus

Leafs


-

-

-



-

-

-



-

+

Elephantopus mollis

Leafs

+

-



+

-

+



-

-

-



Euphorbia prostata Aiton

Entire plant

+

+

-



-

-

+



+

+

Harungana madagascariensis  Barks

+

-

-



-

+

+



+

+

Ipomoea batatas Poir

Leafs

-

-



-

-

-



-

+

+



Kotschya strigosa

Fruits


+

+

-



+

-

+



+

+

Lactura capensis Trump

Leaf stems

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



Musa acuminata

Roots


-

-

-



-

-

-



+

+

Physalis peruviana

Leaf stems

-

-



-

+

-



-

-

-



Spilanthes caulirhiza

Leaf stems

-

-

-



-

-

-



-

+

Stachytarpheta ayennensis

Leafs

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

+



Solanum torvum

Leafs


+

-

-



-

+

+



-

+

Ricinodendron heudolothï

Fruit

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



Rauvolfia vomitoria

Leafs


-

-

-



-

-

+



-

+

Verrnonia amygdalina

Leafs

-

-



-

-

-



+

-

-



+: Presence, -: Absence, Ph: Phenols, Fl: Flavonoids, St: Sterols, Tr: Triterpenoids,

Ta: Tannins, Sa: Saponins, An: Anthocyanins, At: Anthraquinones

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Table 3: Antifungal activity of some of the plant recorded (µg/mL)



Plant names



Fungi



Ca

Cgu

Cn

Ct

Cp

MIC


MFC

MIC


MFC

MIC


MFC

MIC


MFC

MIC


MFC

Anchomanes difformis

-

-



256

256


512

-

-



-

-

-



Cola acuminata

-

-



-

-

512



-

512


-

-

-



Combretum collinum

256


256

512


1024

-

-



256

-

-



-

Costus afer

256


256

-

-



-

-

-



-

1024


-

Drymaria cordata

512


-

256


-

128


128

-

-



-

-

Eugenia gilgii

-

-

256



512

-

-



1024

-

256



512

Eryngium foetidum

256


512

1024


-

32

128


-

-

-



-

Elephantopus mollis

512


1024

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



Kotschya strigosa

64

512


64

512


32

512


32

256


32

1024


Ipomoea batatas Poir

-

-



512

512


-

-

-



-

-

-



Lactura capensis Trump

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

Musa acuminata

128

256


256

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

Physalis peruviana

-

-

256



512

-

-



512

-

256



512

Spilanthes caulirhiza

256


256

-

-



512

-

-



-

-

-



Stachytarpheta cayennensis  -

-

512



-

-

-



1024

-

-



-

Solanum torvum

-

-



512

-

64

256

-

-



128

512


Ricinodendron heudolothï

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

Rauvolfia vomitoria

-

-



256

256


-

-

512



-

-

-



Verrnonia amygdalina

-

-



-

-

256



256

-

-



-

-

Ketoconazole



0.5

64


0.25

8

0.125



0.5

8

8



2

16


Ca: Candida albicans, Cgu: Candida guilliermondi, Cn: Cryptococcus neoformans, Ct: Candida tropicalis, Cp: Candida

parapsilosis, - : > 1024 µg/mL. In bold are values of significant activity

Table 4: Antioxidant activity, total flavonoid and total phenolic content (TFC and TPC) of the



plants recorded

These results are the averages ± DS of the IC50 of each plant extract. In the table, values carrying the same letter

superscripts are not significantly different at p ≤ 0.05 (Student-Newman-Keuls test). mg GAE/g= mg of gallic acid

equivalent per gram of extract. mg QE/g= mg of quercetine equivalent per gram of extract. nd= non dertermined



Plant names



DPPH



(IC



50



μg/mL)



ABTS



(IC



50



μg/mL)



FRAP



(mmol FeSO



4



/g)



TPC



(mg GAE/g)



TFC



(mg QE/g)



Anchomanes difformis

5.65± 0.04

a

13.71±0.98



a

4.01±0.43

c

79.21±3.15



d

9.29±0.52

b

Aframomum pruinosum

7.39± 0.07

a

21.90±0.48



b

1.72±0.65

c

109.84±7.87



d

24.44±1.86

c

Cola acuminata

8.25± 0.09

a

35.85±0.82



c

2.16±0.29

c

36.99±1.91



b

7.40±0.45

a

Commelina benghalensis

>1000


b

>1000


d

0.10±0.05

a

7.45±0.22



a

6.02±0.91

a

Combretum collinum

7.03± 0.15

a

21.26±0.78



b

4.35±0.81

c

78.89±4.48



d

8.92±1.43

b

Costus afer

7.39± 0.07

a

28.22±0.49



c

2.10±0.29

c

59.44±2.28



c

24.77±0.50

c

Drymaria cordata

719.44±169.65

b

>1000


d

0.34±0.06

a

nd


nd

Eugenia gilgii

4.54± 0.07

a

24.61± 1.57



b

2.84±0.21

c

67.68±2.91



c

12.05±2.03

b

Erigeron floribunduus

125.64± 9.91

c

140.31±7.11



d

0.79±0.08

b

33.08±1.09



b

11.85±0.99

b

Elephantopus mollis

246.79±39.28

b

131.65± 8.16



d

0.46±0.22

a

31.32±1.66



b

9.57±1.43

b

Kotschya strigosa

5.92± 0.02

a

31.58±2.02



c

2.82±0.41

c

52.78±1.25



c

12.00±3.35

b

Lactura capensis Trump

259.00± 24.14

b

946.65±0.53



d

0.47±0.04

a

17.25±0.73



a

1.88±0.10

a

Musa acuminata

10.88 ± 0.17

a

28.95±1.50



c

2.93±0.23

c

42.18±2.94



b

5.46±0.16

a

Physalis specie

45.84±1.16

d

41.64±5.28



c

0.98±0.06

b

37.69±1.77



b

13.88±5.16

b

Spilanthes caulirhiza

144.05±18.49

c

479.51±22.72



d

0.58±0.002

a

9.48±0.56



a

4.574±0.57

a

Stachytarpheta ayennensis  45.45±1.40

d

>1000



d

0.25±0.06

a

21.14±1.97



a

3.88±2.96

a

Ricinodendron heudolothï

5.68± 0.18

a

>1000


d

0.77±0.03.4

b

33.20±0.94



b

4.32±0.09

a

Rauvolfia vomitoria

9.06± 0.09

a

45.49±2.13



c

1.98±1.5


c

40.81±0.47

b

4.97±0.83



a

Verrnonia amygdalina

>1000


b

183.12±17.98

d

0.19±0.02



a

23.36±5.00

a

5.02±0.06



a

Trolox


6.47 ± 0.48

a

10.41±0.62



a

nd


nd

nd


Vitamin C

5.47 ± 0.33

a

10.55±0.37



a

nd


nd

nd


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Table 5: Pearson’s correlation coefficients (r

) between total flavonoid and total phenolic contents and



the antioxidant activity, then between total flavonoid and total phenolic contents and the antifungal



activity



Antioxidant activity



Antifungal activity



DPPH



ABTS



FRAP



Average MIC

TPC


-0,562

-0,571


0,728

-0,019


TFC

-0,312


-0,481

0,257


0,129

TPC= total phenolic content, TFC= total flavonoid content

 

CONCLUSION

Forty-seven  plant  species  belonging  to  43

genera  and  28  families  were  sampled  as

used in the treatment of fungal infections in

the  Baham  sub-division.  This  research

shows  the  rich  wealth  of  knowledge  and

usage of plants by traditional healers for the

treatment  of  fungal  infections.  The  in  vitro

antifungal  potential  of  the  surveyed  plants

support  their  traditional  use.  Further

studies  should  be  considered  for  extract

fractionation  or  the  isolation  of  active

compounds,  in  order  to  develop  new,

effective,

safe


and

affordable

phytomedicine  for  the  treatment  of  fungal

infections.



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Authors  are  thankful  to  Baham’s  villagers,

traditional  medicinal  healers  and  herbalists

for their good cooperation for interviews. JP

Dzoyem is thankful to “The World Academy

of  Sciences  TWAS-COMSTECH  supporting

this work through the TWAS Research Grant

Agreement

No:

11–128


RG/CHE/AF/AC_UNESCO FR: 3240262681.

Author affiliations

1

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science,



University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon

2

Medical/Clinical  Mycology  Laboratory,  Faculty



of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University

of Yaounde I, Cameroon



3

Department  of  Biomedical  Sciences,  Faculty  of

Health  Sciences,  University  of  Bamenda,

Cameroon



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