Social security and childcare services and facilities
(art. 26 and art. 18, para. 3)
365. Kazakhstan attaches particular importance to article 26 and article 27, paragraph 3, of the Convention, and to the Committee’s recommendations on child and family welfare contained in paragraphs 26-28 and 51-53 of its concluding observations.
366. Child welfare is addressed under the following statutes: Special State Benefit Act; State Disability and Survivor Benefits and Old-Age Pensions Act; Social Protection of Persons with Disabilities Act; Act on Social, Medical and Educational Support for Children with Special Needs, Mandatory Social Insurance Act, Employment Act, Labour Act, Labour Safety and Labour Protection Act, Targeted State Social Assistance Act, State Family Benefits Act.
367. Assistance for large families is provided under the terms of the Special State Benefit Act.
368. Mothers with numerous children who have been awarded gold or silver pendants or were previously awarded the title “Heroine Mother”, holders of the Order of Glorious Motherhood (Classes I or II), and families with four or more minor children living together (including children in full-time education at institutes of higher or secondary vocational education - from the age of majority to the completion of their studies) are entitled to a special State benefit equivalent to 3.9 times the notional monthly unit (4,017 tenge).
369. Under the Targeted State Social Assistance Act, large families whose income falls below the poverty line receive targeted social assistance in respect of each family member. The amount of the targeted assistance is the difference between the per capita income and the poverty line (a separate calculation is made for each family member) in the provinces and the Astana and Almaty metropolitan areas.
370. On 1 January 2006, 62.6 per cent of recipients of targeted social assistance were children under 18, an increase on the comparable proportion of 61.8 per cent over the same period in 2004. In view of this increase in the proportion of children among targeted welfare recipients, the proportion of recipients who care for children increased from 13.8 per cent on 1 January 2005 to 14.3 per cent on 1 January 2006.
371. In his message to the nation on 18 February 2005, the President launched a programme to extend the scope of social reforms for 2005-2007. The programme envisages improvements in social welfare arrangements that will make a difference to virtually every family in Kazakhstan. As a consequence, the State Family Benefits Act, which aims to protect mothers and children and provide State assistance to low-income families, was adopted on 28 June 2005. The Act stipulates that, in addition to the payment of a lump-sum State maternity benefit equivalent to 15 times the notional monthly unit, which since 2003 has been paid irrespective of size of personal or family income, two additional kinds of child benefit will be introduced:
From 1 January 2006, child benefit for every child under 18 payable to families with an average per capita income lower than the cost of the consumer goods basket. The benefit is equivalent to one notional monthly unit, payable every month for each child (1,030 tenge in 2006);
From 1 July 2006, a childcare allowance for children under 12 months, payable every month irrespective of family income.
372. Childcare allowances are, however, differentiated according to birth order:
First-born child - 3 notional monthly units;
Second-born child - 3.5 notional monthly units;
Third-born child - 4 notional monthly units;
Fourth-born and subsequent children - 4.5 notional monthly units.
373. The amount of the benefits depends on the State’s economic circumstances and will vary according to the notional monthly unit ratified in the National Budget Act for the financial year in question.
374. To ensure implementation of the State Family Benefits Act, in 2006 the Government made provision for 6.5 billion tenge in child benefit, 6.3 billion tenge in childcare allowances and 4.3 billion tenge in maternity benefit.
375. With a view to implementing article 3, paragraph 3, of the Convention, Kazakhstan has inaugurated 90 home-visitor social assistance units attending to more than 10,000 disabled children. Within the education system, attention is being given to the development of a network of psychological, medical and educational guidance centres, rehabilitation centres, and remedial clinics designed to promote the medical and social rehabilitation and fullest possible development of children with serious health impairments.
376. Kazakhstan has 18 paediatric medical/social institutions including 17 for mentally handicapped and one for physically handicapped children that care for 2,988 disabled children, including 737 orphans and children deprived of parental care. The Government is taking steps to increase the amount it spends each year on the care of disabled children. Accordingly, the State spent 231,000 tenge per resident in 2003 and 286,700 tenge in 2004.
377. In order to implement article 23 of the Convention, a new Social Protection of Persons with Disabilities Act was adopted in April 2005. This Act clarifies and codifies the main areas of government policy on the social welfare of disabled people. It specifies that disabled people have the right to social welfare, integration in society, access to information, education, freedom to choose their occupation depending on health status, free medical care, vocational training and career development, restoration of employability and work placement. The Act also lays down rules on specific aspects of the medical, social and vocational rehabilitation of people with disabilities.
378. Under Government decision No. 1276 of 6 December 2004 supplementing Government decision No. 1188 of 11 November 2002, an entry quota to secondary and higher vocational education has been established for category I and II disabled persons, persons disabled from childhood and children with disabilities. For orphans and children deprived of parental care, the quota is 0.5 per cent of all entrants, or 1 per cent of the approved State education quota.
379. Disabled people in higher education, secondary vocational education or benefiting from State education quotas or grants are entitled to bursaries under Kazakh law. Under the Rules on awarding and paying State bursaries to certain categories of students, approved by Government decision No. 1903 of 10 December 1999, blind or deaf students and candidates for master’s degrees in higher vocational education and blind or deaf students in secondary vocational education receive, in addition to the State bursary, a top-up allowance equivalent to 75 per cent of the value of the basic grant.
380. Students and candidates for master’s degrees in higher vocational education and students in secondary vocational education whose disability results from injury, concussion, trauma or illness sustained in combat or in the performance of other military service obligations, the Chernobyl or other nuclear accidents at civilian or military facilities, nuclear weapons testing, or whose disability is genetically linked to the fact that one of their parents was exposed to radiation, are entitled to a top-up allowance equivalent to 50 per cent of the value of the basic grant.
381. Under the Rules on the provision of prosthetic and orthopaedic appliances and assistive devices to disabled children under 18, approved by Government decision No. 754 of 20 July 2005 regulating certain matters pertaining to the rehabilitation of disabled persons, such appliances and devices are made available on the basis of a public contract subject to government procurement legislation.
382. As a result of these measures, in recent years funding for the purchase of prosthetic and orthopaedic appliances and hearing aids has increased significantly. Thus, in 2002, 143.2 million tenge of public money was used to purchase prosthetic and orthopaedic appliances for disabled people, and 91.9 million tenge was allocated for the purchase of hearing aids. The comparable figures for 2005 were 444.9 million and 221.4 million respectively.
383. In 2004 a total of 8,678 people, including 1,536 disabled children, benefited from prosthetic and orthopaedic appliances and hearing aids. In 2005 more than 9,000 benefited, including 1,200 disabled children.
384. Under the programme for the rehabilitation of disabled persons for 2002-2005, the medical and social assessment service has been reorganized, the network of residential social service institutions and home-visitor social assistance units has been extended, the supply and quality of assistive devices for disabled people has increased, and arrangements are being made for disabled access in public places.
385. By its decision No. 17 of 6 January 2006, the Kazakh Government approved the programme for the rehabilitation of disabled persons for 2006-2008. The programme envisages improvements in the disability prevention system; it includes a series of measures to prevent physical, mental and sensory impairments (primary level prevention) and to stop handicaps from becoming a permanent functional restriction or disability (secondary level prevention).
The programme includes the following elements:
(1) Early enhanced-quality screening of women at antenatal and obstetric clinics and
of young children in order to detect abnormalities at an early stage;
(2) Evaluation of workplaces to ensure compliance with health and safety
(3) Creation of a database of persons with disabilities.
386. In accordance with the plan of action to implement the programme for the rehabilitation of disabled persons for 2002-2005, the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection developed and began to phase in the equipment and software necessary to create a centralized database of persons with disabilities.
387. With a view to implementing the Committee’s recommendations in paragraphs 52 and 54 (b) of its concluding observations, in December 2004 the Kazakh authorities submitted amendments and additions to the State Disability and Survivor Benefits and Old-Age Pensions Act (No. 126) of 16 June 1997. The Act is being updated to include children under 18 in the category of disabled children entitled to disability benefits. Pursuant to the Special State Benefit Act, disabled children under 16 are entitled to a benefit equivalent to 0.9 times the notional monthly unit (927 tenge), category I and II disabled children aged between 16 and 18 are entitled to 1.4 times the notional monthly unit (1,442 tenge) and category III disabled children in this age range receive 0.6 times the notional monthly unit (618 tenge). The amount of the benefit varies every year in line with the notional monthly unit approved under the National Budget Act for the financial year in question.
388. In accordance with the Act on Social, Medical and Educational Support for Children with Special Needs, units are being established to provide home based social assistance to families with disabled children. The main tasks of these units are to identify disabled children who need outside care, impart social skills and self sufficiency to them, organize recreational activities, train parents and family members in communicating with and caring for disabled children, and provide medical and legal advice. In 2003 2004, 90 such units were established, serving around 10,000 disabled children.
389. In order to implement article 26 of the Convention, the Mandatory Social Insurance Act was brought into force in Kazakhstan on 1 January 2005. The Act establishes the legal, economic and organizational framework for mandatory social insurance, which is one of the forms of social protection that the State provides for citizens.
390. One type of mandatory social insurance is survivor benefit insurance. The following family members have the right to be designated and receive survivor benefits in the event that a breadwinner who was insured under the mandatory social insurance scheme and was paying social contributions dies (is declared missing by a court, or is declared dead):
(1) Children, including adopted children, and brothers, sisters and grandchildren who
have not yet attained the age of 18 years or, if they are aged 18 years or over, became disabled prior to attaining that age. However, brothers, sisters and grandchildren may only receive survivor benefits if they do not have able bodied parents or if they do not receive maintenance from their parents. If the persons who became disabled are studying at an institute of general secondary or initial vocational education or, on a full time basis, at an institute of secondary or higher vocational education, survivor benefits are paid until they complete their studies;
(2) A parent, spouse, grandfather, grandmother, brother or sister, irrespective of age
and capacity to work, if he (she) is caring for a child, brother, sister or grandchild of the breadwinner who dies (is declared missing by a court, or is declared dead) who has not yet attained the age of one and a half years.
391. Survivor benefits for a child who is deprived of parental care and whose parents were insured under the mandatory social insurance scheme and were paying social contributions are paid to the adoptive parent or guardian (trustee) in respect of each parent lost, in accordance with the legislation of Kazakhstan.
392. Survivor benefits for dependent family member (members) of a breadwinner who dies (is declared missing by a court, or is declared dead) are paid monthly for as long as the family member (members) remains (remain) eligible to receive them.
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